Data
The production of corrugated board is normally expressed in m2.
For LCA it is preferable to have it expressed in weight.
The table shows the calculated inputs and outputs for the production of 1 tonne of corrugated board in Europe with an average paper grade composition. The explanation of the calculation is reported in chapter 2.3.
For the average corrugated board product the paper input is 1,10 tonnes/tonne corrugated board, with an output of 0,10 tonnes paper for recycling.
Please note that corrugated board boxes are far from standardised. They show a huge variation in composition, design and appearance. Boxes are tailormade to fit the box user’s needs and requirements determined by the product to be packed. The amount of paper and glue percentage of trimmings/shavings vary according to the design of the packaging.
On average 1,10 tonne of paper is used to produce one tonne of corrugated board. The original five datasets for the four main paper grades and corrugated board production from which the data are derived, are reported in the Annex. The data for the corrugated box are calculated by multiplying the average paper grade composition by 1,10 and adding the corrugated board data reported in the Annex.
Averages are only given for parameters that were available from all five data sets.
The average for the main additives by weight (input of more than 1 kg) are given, in total covering 90% by weight of the total input of additives.
Product  2015  
tonne net saleable product  1  
SOLD BYPRODUCTS  
Tall oil  kg/t  2,6 
Turpentine  kg/t  0,23 
RAW MATERIAL  
Wood consumption 
as bone dry weight (= 45% of tranported total wet weight) 

Softwood logs  t/t  0,12 
Hardwood logs  t/t  0,065 
Saw mill residues, softwood  t/t  0,026 
Saw mill residues, hardwood  t/t  0,0015 
Total wood  t/t  0,21 
Recovered Paper  as wet weight  
Category  
Mixed Grades  t/t  0,37 
Corrugated and Kraft, preconsumer  t/t  0,16 
Corrugated and Kraft, postconsumer  t/t  0,51 
Newspaper and Magazines  t/t  0 
Other grades  t/t  0,0088 
Purchased pulp consumption  as bone dry weight  
Bleached pulp  t/t  0,00011 
Unbleached pulp  t/t  0,00019 
Paper consumption for corrugated board production  
Total  t/t  1,10 
Cores  kg/t  2,5 
Core plugs  kg/t  0,057 
TRANSPORT OF RAW MATERIALS  
Wood  
Wood with truck  t*km  45 
Wood with rail  t*km  10 
Wood with boat  t*km  20 
Recovered paper  
Recovered paper with truck  t*km  255 
Recovered paper with rail  t*km  5 
Recovered paper with boat  t*km  7 
Paper to corrugated board plants  
Paper with truck  t*km  259 
Paper with rail  t*km  108 
Paper with boat  t*km  488 
ENERGY INPUTS  
Steam  GJ/t  0,50 
Bought Electricity  GJ/t  1,01 
Fossil fuels  
Natural gas  GJ/t  5,1 
Heavy fuel oil  GJ/t  0,075 
Light fuel oil  GJ/t  0,032 
Diesel oil  GJ/t  0,031 
LPG  GJ/t  0,026 
Coal  GJ/t  0,26 
Lignite  GJ/t  0,20 
Peat  GJ/t  0,086 
Total fossil fuel  GJ/t  5,8 
Renewable fuels  
Biofuel (bark, scrap wood, tall oil)  GJ/t  0,35 
Total renewable fuel  GJ/t  0,35 
Refuse Derived Fuel  GJ/t  
Total fuel  GJ/t  6,2 
WATER  
Input total  m^{3}/t  13,3 
Ground water  m^{3}/t  2,8 
Surface water  m^{3}/t  10,2 
Municipal water supply  m^{3}/t  0,35 
Water inout  m^{3}/t  1,9 
ADDITIVES, DRY MASS  
Alum (Al2(SO4)3  kg/t  0,58 
Biocides  kg/t  0,13 
Borax  kg/t  0,89 
CaCO3  kg/t  0,55 
CaO  kg/t  0,75 
Coagulant  kg/t  0,23 
Colorants  kg/t  0,26 
CO2  kg/t  0,24 
Defoamer  kg/t  0,29 
Fillers  kg/t  1,7 
Glue, cold + hot melts  kg/t  0,36 
H2O2, peroxide  kg/t  0,49 
H2SO4  kg/t  1,3 
Water based ink for flexo printing  kg/t  0,91 
Varnish for printing  kg/t  0,48 
Ligno sulphonate  kg/t  0,46 
Lubricants  kg/t  0,046 
MgO  kg/t  0,034 
NaClO3  kg/t  0,18 
Na2CO3 (soda)  kg/t  0,42 
Na2SO4  kg/t  0,10 
NaOH  kg/t  2,8 
NH3  kg/t  0,41 
Oxygen, O2  kg/t  0,44 
PAC (polyaluminiumclorid)  kg/t  0,13 
Pitch despergents  kg/t  0,031 
Polymer and retention agents  kg/t  1,0 
S  kg/t  0,34 
Sizing agents  kg/t  0,86 
SO2  kg/t  0,066 
Starch, corn  kg/t  24,4 
Starch, potato  kg/t  0,9 
Starch, wheat  kg/t  36,7 
Starch, modified  kg/t  4,0 
PACKAGING MATERIALS  
Pallet  kg/t  na 
Paper, board  kg/t  4,32 
PE  kg/t  0,58 
Steel  kg/t  0,044 
Strapping  kg/t  1,0 
EMISSIONS TO AIR  
Dust  kg/t  0,033 
Particulates, < 2.5 um  kg/t  0,0012 
Particulates, > 2.5 um, and < 10um  kg/t  0,0026 
Particulates, > 10 um  kg/t  0,0018 
CO2 (fossil)  kg/t  374 
CO2 (biomass)  kg/t  255 
CO  kg/t  0,38 
NOx (as NO2)  kg/t  0,55 
SOx (as SO2)  kg/t  0,15 
TRS (H2S as S)  kg/t  0,0042 
EMISSIONS TO WATER  
Water output  m³/t  
Thermally polluted  m³/t  2,8 
Process water after treatment  m³/t  8,7 
Total  m³/t  11,4 


COD  kg/t  1,9 
BOD 5  kg/t  0,25 
TOC  kg/t  0,70 
Suspended solids  kg/t  0,44 
Total Nitrogen  kg/t  0,087 
AOX  kg/t  0,00096 
Total Phosphorus  kg/t  0,011 
RESIDUES  wet weight  
Calcium Carbonate  kg/t  1,2 
Ink residues  kg/t  0,5 
Inorganic ashes (10 01 01)  kg/t  4,1 
Inorganic sludges  kg/t  1,4 
Organic sludges (03 03 01 and 03 03 11)  kg/t  48 
Paper for recycling  kg/t  100 
Rejects, paper related  kg/t  10 
Rejects, other  kg/t  30 
Starch, glue (wet weight)  kg/t  0,090 
Lubricants and oil  kg/t  0,10 