Material input and output
The wood input has been reported as bone dry solid wood under bark. The species are specified. From the wood that is used, 59% is chain of custody certified under a forest management system (FSC and/or PEFC).
A pulp yield (oven dry pulp/oven dry wood) of 54-56% is normal for Kraftliner.
A high pulp yield of 80-85% is normal for Semichemical Fluting.
The input of recovered paper has been reported as total weight including moisture and other materials (sand, metal objects, plastics, wood etc.). In European countries the water content of recovered paper is generally assumed to be about 10%. The total input of recovered paper is given.
The content of other materials in the recovered paper is about 5%. These materials are eliminated from the pulp as rejects during the pulping. It is estimated that 25% of these materials originate from the former use of the paper, such as tags, labels etc. The remaining 75% has no relation with the former use of the paper.
The main raw material inputs for corrugated board production are different grades of paper. The liners are used for the surface layers of the corrugated board, fluting is used for the corrugated layers.
This should be kept in mind when considering the averages for paper consumption and the additives for corrugated board production in chapter 4.
Data were collected for chemicals. Those chemicals whose input was in total below 5 kg/tonne net saleable product per mill are calculated as zero input in the calculation of averages of each of the five production processes reported in the Annexes. Chemicals are given as dry weight.
Some of the chemicals have been reported grouped together after their function in the mill.
The functional additives, mainly starch, influence the properties of the paper, process additives are used to guarantee that the process of paper production runs smoothly or to increase the production.
Water treatment additives include additives used for all water treatment on the site, including the treatment of water for the power station, paper production and waste water treatment if this is done internally. The different mills use a large variety of process and water treatment additives. Those that are commonly used and are above the cut-off criterion per mill are reported in the database.
A very limited quantity of other additives, e.g. synthetic polymers (polyethylenamine, polyacrylamide, polyvinylamine) are being used.
The main input for corrugated packaging is starch glue, containing starch and small amounts (less than 0,5 kg/tonne nsp) of caustic soda, borax, starch and wet strength agent. Only a few plants laminate the board and/or add a protective coating. All plants that print the board use the flexo printing technique. For box making cold glue and small amounts (< 0,1 kg/tonne nsp) of hot melt, tape (paper or plastic), plastic tearstrip and stitch wire are used.
All packing materials have been reported. Packaging amounts to relatively small inputs of tape, wrappings of paper or plastic film, steel bands and pallets used as packaging of the saleable product. Pallets are used to a great extent in the logistic operations of the corrugated board industry. However the reported data on the use of pallets are confusing because of the complexity of the matter. Pallets can be returnable or one-way, only used internally in the plants and produced of wood, plastic or paper/wood combinations. Some plants have reported their use in number of pallets while others have reported in kilogram pallet per tonne net saleable product. Therefore a figure could not be reported.
Allocation to paper grades when a mill produces more than one paper grade
The basic data for raw material and chemical inputs are mainly based on recipes used for the production. When allocation was necessary, this was done according to mass production of the different papers.