Emissions to air
Emissions from fuel combustion (transport, electricity generation for the public grid) outside the mill are not included in the data. As described in 3.5, in case the site sold electricity, the emissions associated with the sold electricity are not included.
Emissions to air from the sites have been reported. For dust, TRS (H2S), NOx and SOx the figures from the paper mills are mostly based on measurements. For CO2 the figures reported are based on calculations and reported separately for fossil and biomass origin.
Corrugated board plants have no measured air emission data to report. Therefore the air emission figures for corrugated board production reported in chapter 4 and in the Annex are calculated from reported figures for consumption of different fuels in the corrugated board plants. The emission factors in table 4 were used for the calculations.
|unit||natural gas||oil heavy||oil light/diesel||Coal|
|Particulates, < 2.5 um2||g/GJ||0,2||35||0,1||20|
|Particulates, > 2.5 um, and < 10um2||g/GJ||5||20|
|Particulates, > 10 um2||g/GJ||10||10|
|NOx (as NO2)2||g/GJ||18||100||50||200|
|SOx (as SO2)2||g/GJ||0,55||400||47||500|
|ecoinvent dataset name and ID-number||natural gas, burned in industrial furnace >100kW, RER, [MJ] (#1363)||heavy fuel oil, burned in industrial furnace 1MW, non-modulating, RER, [MJ] (#1589)||light fuel oil, burned in industrial furnace 1MW, non-modulating, RER, [MJ] (#1601)||Hard coal, burned in industrial furnace 1-10MW, RER [MJ] (#848)|
Emissions to air in the flue gas from the power station are given for the mills producing Testliner and Wellenstoff that use combined heat power generation. Emissions from the incineration of rejects with energy recovery at the mill are included.
Emissions in the steam from the drying section of the paper machines are not included.
When mills have anaerobic wastewater treatment on the site, biogas originating from this process is used as a fuel by the mill. The emissions to air originating from the use of biogas as fuel are included.
The volume of the total flue gas stream was not asked in the questionnaire or the means of flue gas treatment.
Only two Kraftliner mills reported the size of particulates that were emitted, one as > than 10um, one as between 2,5 and 10 um. The amount of these specified emissions per tonne was in the same range as the mills that did not specify the size of the particulates. The specified emissions were not included in the calculation of the average of the unspecified particulates and the other way round.
Very few mills were able to report any figures for emissions like metals etc., but not always the same substances and showing a large variation per mill. Therefore this information has not been included in the datasets. Estimates according to methodologies developed by the industry and/or databases on energy production can be used to get an indication of the emissions that can occur due to combustion of different fossil fuels. Together with the amount of fossil fuels used in the processes (chapter 4 and the Annex), an estimate can be made of the order of magnitude of these emissions.
Allocation of emissions to paper grades when a mill produces more than one paper grade
Emissions to air are calculated from measurements, applied technology, permit values or from the input of fuels. Necessary allocations were done in the same way as for energy input.