Questionnaire, definitions, allocation of inputs and outputs to different paper products produced in the same mill.
The questionnaires are available through the two Associations as a supplement to this report. A list of definitions is included in this report. The questionnaires were updated and harmonized for primary fibre based mills and recycled fibre based mills. The questionnaire included a mass balance for recovered paper mills, energy balance, water balance and carbon balance.
The questionnaire treats the paper mills and corrugated board plants as a black box, asking for annual inputs to and outputs from the mill or plant.
Differentiation between the processes within the site, such as power generation, pulping, paper production, wastewater treatment, has not been made.
In case the mill produces other products (e.g. market pulp, sold energy), the mills reported only the inputs and outputs that were allocated to paper production.
No allocation was made to by-products, so the reported inputs and outputs include the production of these by-products.
For those paper mills producing more than one grade of paper it is necessary to allocate inputs and outputs to the different paper grades. Mill people who filled in the questionnaire have done the allocation according to causality.
For a mill producing both Semichemical Fluting and Kraftliner the total input of wood to the mill site has been reported as well as a percentage allocation figure indicating how much of the total wood consumption should be allocated to Semichemical Fluting and how much to Kraftliner.
Details on allocation are described in the following paragraphs of this chapter.
Checking of the data and the allocation percentages
The collected annual data were calculated on inputs to and outputs from the paper mills for the production of one tonne net saleable paper for each paper product, using allocation percentages in case more than one product was produced at one mill.
The following calculation was made in most cases:
|annual in(out)put x allocation %|
|tonnes nsp1 produced in 2014|
Some mills have reported waterborne emissions in g/m3 waste water and for those mills the following calculation was made:
|g/m3 waterborne in(out)put x allocation % x m3 water|
|tonnes nsp produced in 2014|
To increase the quality of the database the results were checked as described below.
The data per tonne nsp for each paper product were compared by technical experts from the participating mills to investigate if variation of the data could be explained by differences in the applied technology. Data that could not be explained were rechecked to make sure that data from the individual mills were correct.
Mills were also asked to recheck the data in case any of the balances was questionable:
- C-balance in a range of +/- 10%
- Water balance: more water output than input
- Energy balance: more energy output than input and/or unrealistic energy efficiency
- For the recycled fibre based papers a mass balance of dry material inputs and outputs were calculated for the individual mills. If the input and output of material did not balance (for mass balance within a range of +/- 5%) mills were asked to investigate their data and give a corrected figure.