Calculation for one tonne of corrugated product
The inputs and outputs per tonne of the average converted corrugated product are reported in Chapter 4. The data include the production of the paper that is needed to produce the corrugated product.
The closed-loop system assumes the ideal case that no recovered fibres are lost from the production shavings and the collected corrugated board after use, and that the fibre quality remains constant due to the reprocessing of the fibres. The primary fibre is thus recycled several times within the system.
The calculation for chapter 4 illustrates the use of the database and the simplified closed-loop approach (no imports/exports, no growth of the loop).
The fibre composition in the containerboard consumption in Europe 2014 (table 2) is calculated as follows:
- The total consumption per grade is taken from CEPI statistics
- The recycled fibre amount is calculated taking into account that on average 1,08 tonne paper for recycling is needed to produce one tonne of recycled paper. The figure 1,08 is found in the Annex as total paper for recycling input for the production of one tonne of 100% recycled paper.
- The primary fibre content is calculated as the total paper consumption per grade minus the calculated recycled fibre amount.
In total this amounts to 3,2 million tonnes of primary fibre and 23,6 million tonnes of recovered fibre, so a recycled fibre content, R1, of 88%.
|Other recycled liner (Schrenz)||3,2||3,2|
|Recycled medium (Wellenstoff)||9,9||-||9,9|
The inputs and outputs for the paper used for the corrugated board production are calculated by multiplying the average relative share of each grade with the data per tonne nsp for each grade as reported in the Annex. The relative share is calculated from the relative consumption that is found in table 2: 14% Kraftliner, 45% Testliner and other recycled liner, 4% Semichemical Fluting and 37% Wellenstoff. These shares are then added up to average inputs and outputs for the paper production.
The paper production inputs and outputs are then multiplied with the average input of paper (1.1 tonne/tonne corrugated board) and added up to the inputs and outputs per tonne of corrugated board as reported in the Annex.
This total includes the production of the paper that is used to produce the corrugated board, including the 10% losses that are reported as “paper for recycling”.
It has to be kept in mind that the industry averages for inputs paper, glue and starch are used. As described in chapter 2.1, corrugated board boxes are far from standardised and inputs of paper, glue and starch depend on the box design.
The average transport distances for wood and recovered paper are reported in paragraph 3.7. These data have been used to calculate the transport data in t*km in chapter 4 and the Annex.
Please note that emissions from transport are not included in the “emissions to air” in chapter 4.
The amount of corrugated board that is not recycled leaves the closed-loop system and is either composted, incinerated with energy recovery, or landfilled. For the above mentioned recovery rate of 88% this means that of each tonne of corrugated board production, 0,88 tonnes is recycled within the closed-loop system and 0,12 tonnes is lost from the system. This figure has to be used in combination with a module for waste treatment/other recovery operations.