Emissions to air
Emissions from fuel combustion (transport, electricity generation for the public grid) outside the mill are not included in the data. In case the site sold electricity, the emissions associated with the sold electricity are not included. Emissions to air from the sites have been reported. For dust, TRS (H2S), NOx and SOx the figures from the paper mills are mostly based on measurements. For CO2 the figures reported are based on emissions reported to authorities where provided, or where these were not provided they are based on calculations and reported separately for fossil and biomass origin. Corrugated board plants have no measured air emission data to report. Therefore, the air emission figures for corrugated board production reported in Table 4 and in the Annex are calculated from reported figures for consumption of different fuels in the corrugated board plants. The emission factors in Table 3 were used for the calculations for fossil fuels. For biofuels, the following factors were applied: black liquor 110 kgCOe2 per GJ; wood, bark and wood chips 125 kgCO2e per GJ; biogas 55 kgCO2e per GJ. These emission factors were based on data provided by the mills.
Table 3 Default factors for calculating emissions to air from fossil fuels
|unit||natural gas||oil heavy||oil light/diesel||Coal|
|Particulates, < 2.5µ
|Particulates, > 2.5
µm, and < 10µm2
|Particulates, > 10 µm2||g/GJ||10||10|
|NOx (as NO2)2||g/GJ||18||100||50||200|
|SOx (as SO2)2||g/GJ||0,55||400||47||500|
|ecoinvent dataset name and ID-number||natural gas, burned in industrial furnace >100kW, RER, [MJ] (#1363)||heavy fuel oil, burned in industrial furnace 1MW, non-modulating, RER, [MJ] (#1589)||light fuel oil, burned in industrial furnace 1MW, non-modulating, RER, [MJ] (#1601)||Hard coal, burned in industrial furnace 1-10MW, RER [MJ] (#848)|
1* Source Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (extracted from Emission Factors Database, IPPC Guidelines version 2006)
2* ecoinvent Centre, ecoinvent data v2.2 Sachbilanzen von Energiesystemen. Final report No. 6 ecoinvent data v2.0, 2007, Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories, PSI, Duebendorf, CH, www.ecoinvent.org, 2012
Emissions to air in the flue gas from the CHP the power station are given for the mills producing testliner and recycled fluting that use combined heat power generation. Emissions from the incineration of rejects with energy recovery at the mill are included. Emissions in the steam from the drying section of the paper machines are not included. When mills have anaerobic wastewater treatment on the site, biogas originating from this process is used as a fuel by the mill. The emissions to air originating from the use of biogas as fuel are included.
Very few mills were able to report any figures for emissions such as metals etc. Where data was reported the same substances were not always covered and where common emissions were reported these showed a large
variation per mill, primarily due to differences in measuring/monitoring and/or calculation regimes. Therefore, this information has not been included in the datasets. For conducting their own LCI or LCA studies, users of the dataset are advised that they should include such emissions. These can be estimated through the application of standard emissions data for the combustion of different fossil fuels, together with the amount of fossil fuels used in the processes (as indicated in Table 4 and the Annex). This will allow an estimation to be made of the order of magnitude of these emissions.
Allocation of emissions to paper grades when a mill produces more than one paper grade
Emissions to air are calculated from measurements, applied technology, permit values or from the input of fuels. Necessary allocations were done in the same way as for energy input.