Results
Life cycle inventory for corrugated board 2020
Europe with an average corrugated base paper composition. The production of corrugated board is normally
expressed in m2. However, for LCA it is preferable to have it expressed in weight.
For the average corrugated board product, the paper input is 1.12 tonnes/tonne corrugated board, with an
output of 0.12tonnes paper for recycling.
The original five datasets for the four main paper grades and corrugated board/box production from which the
data are derived, are reported in the Annex. The data for the corrugated box is calculated by multiplying the
average paper grade composition by 1.12 and adding the corrugated board/box data reported in the Annex.
^{Table 4  Life cycle inventory for the production of 1 tonne of corrugated boxes in Europe, with average corrugated base paper composition}
Product  2021  
tonne net saleable product  1  
SOLD BYPRODUCTS  
Tall oil  kg/t  3.39 
Turpentine  kg/t  0.19 
RAW MATERIAL  
Wood consumption  as bone dry weight (= 45% of transported total wet weight) 

Softwood logs  t/t  0.10 
Hardwood logs  t/t  0.04 
Saw mill residues, softwood  t/t  0.03 
Saw mill residues, hardwood  t/t  0.00 
Total wood  t/t  0.18 
Recovered Paper  as wet weight  1.04 
Category  
Mixed Grades  t/t  0.49 
Corrugated and Kraft, preconsumer  t/t  0.09 
Corrugated and Kraft, postconsumer  t/t  0.44 
Newspaper and Magazines  t/t  0.01 
Other grades  t/t  0.02 
Purchased pulp consumption  as bone dry weight  
Bleached pulp  t/t  0.0072 
Unbleached pulp  t/t  0.0062 
Paper consumption for corrugated board production  
Total  t/t  1.12 
Cores  kg/t  2.53 
Core plugs  kg/t  0.06 
TRANSPORT OF RAW MATERIALS  
Wood  
Wood with truck  t.km/t  181 
Wood with rail  t.km/t  18 
Wood with boat  t.km/t  50 
Recovered paper  
Recovered paper with truck  t.km/t  456 
Recovered paper with rail  t.km/t  23 
Recovered paper with boat  t.km/t  22 
Paper to corrugated board plants  
Paper with truck  t.km/t  553 
Paper with rail  t.km/t  614 
Paper with boat  t.km/t  320 
ENERGY INPUTS  
Steam  GJ/t  0.568 
Bought Electricity  GJ/t  1.376 
Fossil fuels  
Natural gas  GJ/t  4.720 
Heavy fuel oil  GJ/t  0.037 
Light fuel oil  GJ/t  0.031 
Diesel oil  GJ/t  0.005 
LPG  GJ/t  0.015 
Coal  GJ/t  0.331 
Lignite  GJ/t  0.149 
Peat  GJ/t  0.045 
Total fossil fuel  GJ/t  5.333 
Renewable fuels  
Biofuel (bark, scrap wood, tall oil)  GJ/t  0.662 
Total renewable fuel  GJ/t  0.662 
Refuse Derived Fuel  GJ/t  0.134 
Total fuel  GJ/t  6.129 
WATER  
Input total  m^{3}/t  13.61 
Ground water (non renewable) 
m^{3}/t  0.41 
Ground water (renewable)  m^{3}/t  2.65 
Surface water  m^{3}/t  10.20 
Municipal water supply  m^{3}/t  0.69 
Rain water  m^{3}/t  0.08 
Other water received  m^{3}/t  0.00 
Water inout 
m^{3}/t  1.64 


ADDITIVES, DRY MASS  
Alum (Al2(SO4)3  kg/t  0.26 
Biocides  kg/t  0.49 
Borax  kg/t  0.24 
CaCO3  kg/t  5.17 
CaO  kg/t  0.84 
Coagulant  kg/t  0.00 
Colorants  kg/t  0.30 
CO2  kg/t  0.29 
Defoamer  kg/t  0.15 
Fillers  kg/t  3.24 
Glue, cold + hot melts  kg/t  1.10 
H2O2, peroxide  kg/t  0.44 
H2SO4  kg/t  1.06 
Water based ink for flexo printing  kg/t  1.93 
Varnish for printing  kg/t  0.53 
Ligno sulphonate  kg/t  0.76 
Lubricants  kg/t  0.06 
MgO  kg/t  0.03 
NaClO3  kg/t  0.04 
Na2CO3 (soda)  kg/t  0.289 
Na2SO4  kg/t  0.11 
NaOH  kg/t  2.67 
NH3  kg/t  0.02 
Oxygen, O2  kg/t  0,29 
PAC (polyaluminiumclorid)  kg/t  0.30 
Pitch despergents  kg/t  0.02 
Polymer and retention agents  kg/t  1.30 
S, sulphur  kg/t  0.10 
Sizing agents  kg/t  0.61 
SO2  kg/t  0.00 
Starch, corn  kg/t  22.30 
Starch, potato  kg/t  0.00 
Starch, wheat  kg/t  28.17 
Starch, modified  kg/t  5.15 
EMISSIONS TO AIR  
Particulates, < 2.5 µm  kg/t  0.0076 
Particulates, > 2.5 µm, and < 10µm  kg/t  0.0041 
Particulates, > 10 µm  kg/t  0.0202 
CO2 (fossil)  kg/t  346.17 
CO2 (biomass)  kg/t  256.88 
CO  kg/t  0.31 
NOx (as NO2)  kg/t  0.68 
SOx (as SO2)  kg/t  0.13 
TRS (H2S as S)  kg/t  0.001 
EMISSIONS TO WATER  
Water output  m³/t  
Thermally polluted water  m³/t  8.15 
Process water after treatment  m³/t  3.79 
Total water out  m³/t  11.94 
COD  kg/t  3.09 
BOD 5  kg/t  0.36 
TOC  kg/t  0.19 
Suspended solids  kg/t  0.67 
Total Nitrogen  kg/t  0.12 
AOX  kg/t  0.02 
Total Phosphorus  kg/t  0.01 
RESIDUES  wet weight  
Calcium Carbonate  kg/t (75% dry content)  2.22 
Ink residues  kg/t (50% dry content)  2.00 
Inorganic ashes (10 01 01)  kg/t (85% dry content)  13.20 
Inorganic sludges  kg/t (32% dry content)  1.43 
Organic sludges (03 03 01 and 03 03 11)  kg/t (43% dry content)  135.35 
Paper for recycling  kg/t (90% dry content)  121.49 
Rejects, paper related  kg/t (57% dry content)  15.47 
Rejects, other  kg/t (57% dry content)  30.93 
Starch, glue (wet weight)  kg/t (30% dry content)  0.25 
Lubricants and oil  kg/t  0.10 
«0» no input or below reporting requirements see «chemical input»
«na» not available
*As this life cycle inventory is intended to be representative of average European production, only transport from European paper mills to
European corrugated board production sites has been considered in the weighted average. Transport associated with export of paper
outside of Europe has not been considered
**Rejected materials that were associated with the previous use of the paper (for example, staples, paper clips, tags, adhesive labels, unrecovered
fibres, etc)
***Material that is not in anyway associated with the previous use of the paper (for example, foreign items such as plastic packaging, glass,
sand and grit, etc)