Data description

Data description

Material inputs and outputs

Material inputs

Raw Material

The wood input has been reported as bone dry solid wood under bark. The species are specified, although in the datasets they are reported only as softwood or hardwood.

70% of wood used in paper manufacture originates from forests that have been managed according to a certified, third-party verified, sustainable forest management scheme and delivered through a certified chain-of-custody system (PEFC or similar).

A pulp yield (oven dry pulp/oven dry wood) of 54-56% is normal for Kraftliner. A high pulp yield of 80-85% is normal for Semi Chemical Fluting.

The input of recovered paper has been reported as total weight including moisture and other materials (sand, metal objects, plastics, wood etc.). In European countries the water content of recovered paper is generally assumed to be about 10%. The total input of recovered paper is given.

Read more

Chemicals and other non-fibre inputs

Data were collected for chemicals and other non-fibre inputs which may be used either within the process or as additives. 

Inputs of chemicals or additives at less than 5 kg/tonne net saleable product per mill are calculated as zero in the calculation of averages of each of the five production processes reported in the Annexes. Chemicals are given as dry weight.

Some of the inputs have been reported grouped together according to their function in the mill. The functional additives, mainly starch, influence the properties of the paper, whilst process additives are used to guarantee that the process of paper production runs smoothly or to increase the production. 

Read more


Data on cores and other packaging materials associated with paper reels was not collected and updated for 2017. Looking at previous data collections, the values showed little change over the years and other LCA studies show that the impacts of these packaging components are relatively small.

For corrugated board products, data on packaging materials used around the product have been reported. Packaging for corrugated board products amounts to relatively small inputs of tape, wrappings of paper or plastic film, steel bands and pallets used as packaging of the saleable product. Pallets are also used in the logistic operations of the corrugated board industry. However, data on usage of pallets has not been collected. Previous iterations of the study have shown that the reported data on the use of pallets are confusing because of the complexity of the matter. Pallets can be returnable or one-way, only used internally in the plants and produced of wood, plastic or paper/wood combinations. Previously some plants have reported their use in number of pallets while others have reported in kilogram pallet per tonne net saleable product, making it difficult to produce a meaningful figure.

Allocation to paper grades when a mill produces more than one paper grade

The basic data for raw material and chemical inputs are mainly based on recipes used for the production. When allocation was necessary, this was done according to mass production of the different papers.