Data description

Data description

Questionnaire, definitions, allocation of inputs and outputs to different paper products produced in the same mill.

The questionnaires are available through the two Associations as a supplement to this report. A list of definitions is included as well. The questionnaires were slightly modified to improve data collection in some areas, most particularly in relation to transport of raw materials (wood and recovered paper) to the mills and transport of containerboard from the mills to the corrugated board plants. Some improvements were also made with regards to data collected relating to water consumption at the mills and starch consumption at the corrugated plants. The questionnaires for paper mills included a mass balance for recovered paper mills, energy balance, water balance and carbon balance.

The questionnaires treat the paper mills and corrugated board plants as a black box, asking for annual inputs to and outputs from the mill or plant. 

Differentiation between the processes within the site, such as power generation, pulping, paper production, wastewater treatment, has not been made.

According to ISO 14044, allocation of the impacts of primary fibre production (the cradle) and waste treatment (the grave) of wood fibre to the phases in between the cradle and the grave of the life cycle should be avoided, wherever possible. In our case this is done by expanding the product system and considering the expanded system with a closed-loop approach. 

In cases where the mill produces other products (e.g. sold energy), the mill reports only the inputs and outputs that were allocated to paper production. No allocation was made to by-products, so the reported inputs and outputs include the production of these by-products.

For those paper mills producing more than one grade of paper and/or market pulp it is necessary to allocate inputs and outputs to the different paper grades or pulp. Mill staff who filled in the questionnaire have done the allocation according to causality. 

For a mill producing both Semichemical Fluting and Kraftliner the total input of wood to the mill site has been reported as well as a percentage allocation figure indicating how much of the total wood consumption should be allocated to Semichemical Fluting and how much to Kraftliner.

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